SSL证书这么用

综合技术 Fabs

近日,谷歌工程师宣布将在2018年第二季度发布的Chrome 67中禁止一切使用不安全来源的呈现API(Presentation API)。

Presentation API, 即呈现API,是一个能使网页内容访问演示文稿显示并呈现自身的W3C标准技术。它允许设备在第二屏幕上显示内容,例如投影机或电视机。 Presentation API更显着的用途之一是谷歌在Chrome,Android和Chrome Cast设备上提供的“Casting”功能。

Let’s Encrypt

https://letsencrypt.org/

Let’s Encrypt 项目由 EFF、 Mozilla、Akamai、密歇根大学和思科等组织发起,由非营利组织互联网安全研究集团(Internet Security Research Group)经营,其使命是让每个网站都能使用 HTTPS 加密。

Let’s Encrypt 项目宣布它已签发了超过 1 亿个证书。

下载客户端

https://github.com/certbot/certbot/releases

wget https://github.com/certbot/certbot/archive/v0.15.0.tar.gz

tar -xvf v0.15.0.tar.gz

cd certbot-0.15.0

三种安装模式

./letsencrypt-auto --help

Manual

// 在非目标服务器上执行模式
--manual          Obtain certificates interactively, or using shell script hooks

执行如下命令

./letsencrypt-auto certonly --manual -d gg.fabself.net
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
Obtaining a new certificate
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for gg.fabself.net

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NOTE: The IP of this machine will be publicly logged as having requested this
certificate. If you're running certbot in manual mode on a machine that is not
your server, please ensure you're okay with that.

Are you OK with your IP being logged?
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(Y)es/(N)o:Y

Yes 过后有如下提示:

Make sure your web server displays the following content at
http://gg.fabself.net/.well-known/acme-challenge/LX_kS_OyVVNdeEI3aDRjXP4-eHFRNhh1JMDuePhKVgw before continuing:

LX_kS_OyVVNdeEI3aDRjXP4-eHFRNhh1JMDuePhKVgw.3h_8AoI_OjBsHFko6XV4wNW6f_WlyXhoaEsne5R6Zw0

If you don't have HTTP server configured, you can run the following
command on the target server (as root):

mkdir -p /tmp/certbot/public_html/.well-known/acme-challenge
cd /tmp/certbot/public_html
printf "%s" LX_kS_OyVVNdeEI3aDRjXP4-eHFRNhh1JMDuePhKVgw.3h_8AoI_OjBsHFko6XV4wNW6f_WlyXhoaEsne5R6Zw0 > .well-known/acme-challenge/LX_kS_OyVVNdeEI3aDRjXP4-eHFRNhh1JMDuePhKVgw
# run only once per server:
$(command -v python2 || command -v python2.7 || command -v python2.6) -c 
"import BaseHTTPServer, SimpleHTTPServer; 
s = BaseHTTPServer.HTTPServer(('', 80), SimpleHTTPServer.SimpleHTTPRequestHandler); 
s.serve_forever()"
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Press Enter to Continue

在回车之前,按以上提示登录到 目标服务器 ,执行以上脚本

再回到操作机器上回车,可以看到如下:

Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges

IMPORTANT NOTES:
 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/gg.fabself.net/fullchain.pem. Your cert will
   expire on 2017-10-01. To obtain a new or tweaked version of this
   certificate in the future, simply run letsencrypt-auto again. To
   non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run
   "letsencrypt-auto renew"
 - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:   https://letsencrypt.org/donate
   Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le

证书已经签好,并放在了指定目录下 /etc/letsencrypt/live

tree 一下看看文件列表

sudo tree /etc/letsencrypt/live/

/etc/letsencrypt/live/
└── gg.fabself.net
    ├── README
    ├── cert.pem -> ../../archive/gg.fabself.net/cert1.pem
    ├── chain.pem -> ../../archive/gg.fabself.net/chain1.pem
    ├── fullchain.pem -> ../../archive/gg.fabself.net/fullchain1.pem
    └── privkey.pem -> ../../archive/gg.fabself.net/privkey1.pem

Standalone

   //在目标主机上操作模式
--standalone      Run a standalone webserver for authentication

执行如下命令,执行命令之前确保 nginx/Apache 已关闭

./letsencrypt-auto certonly --standalone -d gg.fabself.net

很速度

Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
Obtaining a new certificate
Performing the following challenges:
tls-sni-01 challenge for gg.fabself.net
Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges

IMPORTANT NOTES:
 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/gg.fabself.net/fullchain.pem. Your cert will
   expire on 2017-10-01. To obtain a new or tweaked version of this
   certificate in the future, simply run letsencrypt-auto again. To
   non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run
   "letsencrypt-auto renew"
 - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:   https://letsencrypt.org/donate
   Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le
sudo tree /etc/letsencrypt/live
/etc/letsencrypt/live
`-- gg.fabself.net
    |-- cert.pem -> ../../archive/gg.fabself.net/cert1.pem
    |-- chain.pem -> ../../archive/gg.fabself.net/chain1.pem
    |-- fullchain.pem -> ../../archive/gg.fabself.net/fullchain1.pem
    |-- privkey.pem -> ../../archive/gg.fabself.net/privkey1.pem
    `-- README

Webroot

//在目标主机上,nginx/Apache 启动的状态下,指定文件目录操作模式
--webroot         Place files in a server's webroot folder for authentication

执行如下命令

./letsencrypt-auto certonly --webroot -w  /usr/share/nginx/html -d gg.fabself.net
Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log
Obtaining a new certificate
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for gg.fabself.net
Using the webroot path /usr/share/nginx/html for all unmatched domains.
Waiting for verification...
Cleaning up challenges

IMPORTANT NOTES:
 - Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at
   /etc/letsencrypt/live/gg.fabself.net/fullchain.pem. Your cert will
   expire on 2017-10-01. To obtain a new or tweaked version of this
   certificate in the future, simply run letsencrypt-auto again. To
   non-interactively renew *all* of your certificates, run
   "letsencrypt-auto renew"
 - If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

   Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt:   https://letsencrypt.org/donate
   Donating to EFF:                    https://eff.org/donate-le
sudo tree /etc/letsencrypt/live
/etc/letsencrypt/live
`-- gg.fabself.net
    |-- cert.pem -> ../../archive/gg.fabself.net/cert1.pem
    |-- chain.pem -> ../../archive/gg.fabself.net/chain1.pem
    |-- fullchain.pem -> ../../archive/gg.fabself.net/fullchain1.pem
    |-- privkey.pem -> ../../archive/gg.fabself.net/privkey1.pem
    `-- README

证书部署

证书描述

cert.pem 申请的服务器证书文件

privkey.pem 服务器证书对应的私钥

chain.pem 除服务器证书外,浏览器解析所需的其他全部证书,比如根证书和中间证书

fullchain.pem 包含服务器证书的全部证书链文件

nginx 配置

打开 nginx.conf,配置 443 端口及证书路径

server {
    listen 443;
    server_name gg.fabself.net;

    root /usr/share/nginx/html;
    index index.html index.htm;
    ssl on;
    ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/gg.fabself.net/fullchain.pem;
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/gg.fabself.net/privkey.pem;
    ssl_session_timeout 5m;
    ssl_protocols SSLv3 TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
    ssl_ciphers "HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5 or HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5:!3DES";
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

    location / {
            try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
    }
}

配置 80 端口重定向至 433

server {
    listen 80 default_server;
    listen [::]:80 default_server ipv6only=on;
    root /usr/share/nginx/html;
    index index.html index.htm;
    server_name gg.fabself.net;
    return 301 https://$server_name$request_uri;
}

就这样简单,HTTPS 配置成功

证书有效期 90 天

更新证书

自动更新需要在 目标主机 上进行,选用 standaloneWebroot 模式比较适用

./letsencrypt-auto renew

如果提示如下,说明证书还没有过期,就耐心等待

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/gg.fabself.net.conf
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cert not yet due for renewal

The following certs are not due for renewal yet:
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/gg.fabself.net/fullchain.pem (skipped)
No renewals were attempted.
考虑更自动化的方式,可以把 `./letsencrypt-auto renew` 加入到 `crontab` 中,可以每天更新两次保障

Fabs

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